17 und 23 year old dating
I highly reccomend to the reader, "Dating the Exodus," a Th D dissertation by Dr. Meyers (1997, Trinity Evangelical Seminary, Florida), which discusses various proposals for the Exodus' date using Jewish and Non-Jewish sources in addition to the biblical evidence.
He favors the Hyksos Expulsion as being behind the Exodus traditions, and notes this was the common understanding of the Early Christian period. the following url: Another reccomended article is by David Goldstein (published 24 July 2006) titled "Of Pharaohs and Dates: Critical Remarks on the Dating and Historicity of the Exodus From Egypt." He calculates an Exodus as occurring circa 1447 or 1528 BCE (the latter of which by _my calculations_ falls in the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I who expelled the Hyksos). E.=Before the Common Era, an alternate scholarly designation for B. Jacobovici was apparently aware that some scholars dated the Exodus to circa 1446 BCE on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1 chronology.
His article, however, primarily critiques a 1312 BCE Exodus date (found in the Rabbinical Seder Olam Rabbah) espoused by Jonathan Adler, "Dating the Exodus: A New Perspective." pp. He was also aware that the Hyksos Expulsion associated with Pharaoh Ahmose I was a mid 16th century BCE event and that almost 100 years separated the Hyksos expulsion from the 1446 BCE Exodus date, and that because of this discrepancy, some scholars had rejected the Exodus as being a Hyksos Expulsion. Jacobovici was also apparently _unaware_ that a number of scholars had come to the conclusion that the 1446 BCE date preserved in 1 Kings 6:1 appeared to be CONTRADICTED by internal data preserved in the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st and 2d Samuel and Kings (as well as Acts -22).
44-51, in the journal Jewish Bible Quarterly 23 (1995). What Jacobovici _was not aware of_ was that the Catholic scholar Eusebius as preserved by Jerome fixed the Exodus at circa 1512 B. When this data was factored in with Solomon's 4th year (circa 966 BCE when the Jerusalem Temple was begun to be built), it yielded an Exodus falling in the reign of Ahmose I.
), Jack (1925), De Vries (1962), Hoffmeier (1996), Kitchen (2003) and Goldstein (2006) and "others" have observed that 1 Kings 6:1's statement that 480 years elapsed from the Exodus and the 4th year of Solomon's reign appears to be CONTRADICTED by the internal chonological evidence of the Bible, suggesting almost 600 years elapsed not 480 years.
Please be advised that I _now_ understand that a "conflation and fusion" exists of events appearing in the Bible's Exodus narratives: Sites like Arad and Ai which were destroyed in the 3rd millennium BCE, the Hyksos expulsion of 1540-1530 BCE, Ramesside Era events in the Sinai and Arabah, and places existing only in Late Iron II, 640-562 BCE.
After 13 years of "lording it" over the eastern delta, the Ramessides expelled the Hyksos' descendants a SECOND TIME, and they eventually again settled at Jerusalem.
Mainstream scholarship understands Israel's settling of the Hill Country is Iron I, ca. Why then does the Bible's chronology have an Exodus "hundreds of years" earlier?
The answer is very surprising and has been preserved for almost 2000 years in the writings of an Egyptian priest/historian called Manetho.
The first was of the Hyksos of the mid 16th century and then another in the Ramesside era.
He understood that the Hyksos fled to and settled at Jerusalem, but that 592 or 612 years later (Josephus' two reckonings) "their descendants" reinvaded Egypt, resettling at the town they had been expelled from earlier called Avaris.
He wrote a history of Egypt in the 3rd century BCE for his Hellenistic Greek overlord Ptolemy II.
He noted that TWO EXPULSIONS occurred in Egypt's history of Asiatics.